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小宝日记

——一个消保主义者的生活与故事

 
 
 

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这是“消保主义者”王小宝的博客。“小宝”,是“消保”(消费者权益保护)的谐音。王小宝本科学习商品检验,后改修法学,获得法学博士,天府大学法学院教授。王小宝对侵害消费者权益的行为疾恶如仇,主张依法维护消费者权利。

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王竹译:美国法学会《侵权法重述·第三次·产品责任编》(条文翻译校对稿)  

2010-08-07 08:24:31|  分类: 学术翻译 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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美国法学会《侵权法重述·第三次·产品责任编》(条文翻译校对稿)

王竹译 

      Restatement of the Law, Third, Torts: Products Liability (Black Letters)
      Copyright ? 1998 by The American Law Institute
      说明:本译本仅系为中国《侵权责任法》起草研究、参考目的,根据肖永平、龚乐凡、汪雪飞译,肖永平审校:《侵权法重述第三版:产品责任》,法律出版社2006年版译本校对而成,仅供个人学习、研究参考之用,请勿用于其他任何目的,后果自负。相关译文具体细节请参见注释。

      第一章基于销售时产品缺陷的商业产品销售者责任

      Chapter 1- Liability of Commercial Product Sellers Based on Product Defects at Time of Sale

      主题1普遍适用于产品的责任规则

      Topic 1- Liability Rules Applicable to Products Generally

      §1.商业销售者或者分发者因缺陷产品导致损害的责任

      从事产品销售或者以其他方式分发 [1]的经营者,销售或者分发缺陷产品,应对该缺陷所造成的人身或者财产损害承担责任。
      1 Liability of Commercial Seller or Distributor for Harm Caused by Defective Products
      One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing products who sells or distributes a defective product is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by the defect.

      §2.产品缺陷的种类

      产品在销售或者分发时,包含制造缺陷,设计存在缺陷,或者因为说明或警示不充分而存在缺陷,则该产品存在缺陷。产品:
      (a)如果背离其设计意图,即便在该产品准备和营销过程中已尽到所有可能的注意,那么(产品)包含制造缺陷;
      (b)如果可预见的因该产品引起的损害风险能够通过销售者或以其他方式分发者,或者他们在分销商业链中的前手,通过采纳合理替代性设计而减少或者避免,而没有采纳合理替代性设计致使产品不具有合理性安全,那么(产品)设计存在缺陷;
      (c)如果可预见的因该产品引起的损害风险能够通过销售者或以其他方式分发者,或者他们在分销商业链中的前手,通过提供合理的说明或警示而减少或者避免,而没有提供合理的说明或警示致使产品不具有合理性安全,那么(产品)因说明或警示不足而存在缺陷。
      2 Categories of Product Defect
      A product is defective when, at the time of sale or distribution, it contains a manufacturing defect, is defective in design, or is defective because of inadequate instructions or warnings. A product:
      (a) contains a manufacturing defect when the product departs from its intended design even though all possible care was exercised in the preparation and marketing of the product;
      (b) is defective in design when the foreseeable risks of harm posed by the product could have been reduced or avoided by the adoption of a reasonable alternative design by the seller or other distributor, or a predecessor in the commercial chain of distribution, and the omission of the alternative design renders the product not reasonably safe;
      (c) is defective because of inadequate instructions or warnings when the foreseeable risks of harm posed by the product could have been reduced or avoided by the provision of reasonable instructions or warnings by the seller or other distributor, or a predecessor in the commercial chain of distribution, and the omission of the instructions or warnings renders the product not reasonably safe.

      §3.支持推断产品缺陷的间接证据

      当损害原告的事件满足下列特征,即使没有关于具体缺陷的证据,也可以推定原告所遭受的损害是由在产品在销售或者分发时存在的产品缺陷导致的:
      (a)该事件属于通常是由产品缺陷引起的类型;并且
      (b)在该具体案件中,不是仅仅由于产品在销售或者分发时存在的缺陷以外的原因引起的。
      3 Circumstantial Evidence Supporting Inference of Product Defect
      It may be inferred that the harm sustained by the plaintiff was caused by a product defect existing at the time of sale or distribution, without proof of a specific defect, when the incident that harmed the plaintiff:
      (a) was of a kind that ordinarily occurs as a result of product defect; and
      (b) was not, in the particular case, solely the result of causes other than product defect existing at the time of sale or distribution.

      §4.对产品安全法律或法规的违反与遵守

      4 Noncompliance and Compliance with Product Safety Statutes or Regulations
      有关设计缺陷责任或者说明或警示不充分责任:
      (a)产品对可适用的产品安全法律或法规的违反,致使产品存在与该法律或法规旨在减小的风险有关的缺陷;并且
      (b)产品对可适用的产品安全法律或法规的遵守,在决定该产品是否存在与该法律或法规旨在减小的风险有关的缺陷时应该予以适当考虑,但这种遵守并不排除作为法律问题对产品缺陷的认定。
      In connection with liability for defective design or inadequate instructions or warnings:
      (a) a product,s noncompliance with an applicable product safety statute or administrative regulation renders the product defective with respect to the risks sought to be reduced by the statute or regulation; and
      (b) a product,s compliance with an applicable product safety statute or administrative regulation is properly considered in determining whether the product is defective with respect to the risks sought to be reduced by the statute or regulation, but such compliance does not preclude as a matter of law a finding of product defect.

      主题2适用于特殊产品或产品市场的责任规则

      Topic 2- Liability Rules Applicable to Special Products or Product Markets

      §5.产品零件商业销售者或分销者对装配了该零件的产品导致损害的责任

      从事产品零件销售或者以其他方式分发的经营者,销售或分销产品零件,应对对装配了该零件的产品导致的人身或财产损害承担责任,如果:
      (a)该零件自身存在本章所定义的缺陷,并且该缺陷导致了该损害;或
      (b)(1)该零件的销售者或分销者实质上参与了将该零件装配入该产品设计;并且
      (2)该零件的装配导致该产品存在本章所定义的缺陷;并且
      (3)产品的该项缺陷造成了该损害。
      5 Liability of Commercial Seller or Distributor of Product Components for Harm Caused by Products Into Which Components Are Integrated
      One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing product components who sells or distributes a component is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by a product into which the component is integrated if:
      (a) the component is defective in itself, as defined in this Chapter, and the defect causes the harm; or
      (b)(1) the seller or distributor of the component substantially participates in the integration of the component into the design of the product; and
      (2) the integration of the component causes the product to be defective, as defined in this Chapter; and
      (3) the defect in the product causes the harm.

      §6.商业销售者或分销者对缺陷处方药和医疗设备导致损害的责任

      (a)处方药或医疗设备的制造商销售或者以其他方式分发有缺陷的处方药或医疗设备,应对该缺陷对人身造成的伤害承担责任。处方药或医疗设备是指必须依据卫生保健提供者的处方才能合法地销售或者以其他方式分发的药品或设备。 [2]
      (b)为第a款规定的责任目的,如果在销售或以其他方式分销时处方药或医疗设备符合下列情形之一的,存在缺陷:
      (1)包含第2条第a款所定义的制造缺陷;或
      (2)由于本条第c款所定义的设计缺陷而不具有合理的安全性;或
      (3)由于本条第d款所定义的说明或警示不充分而不具有合理的安全性。
      (c)如果某种药品或医疗设备引起的可预见的损害风险与其可预见的治疗效果相比十分巨大 [3],以致理性的卫生保健提供者在知道可预见的风险和治疗效果的情况下,都不会给任何一类患者开具该药品或医疗设备的处方,那么该处方药或医疗设备由于设计缺陷而不具有合理的安全性
      (d)如果关于可预见的损害风险的合理说明或者警示未能提供给以下对象,那么处方药或医疗设备由于说明或警示不充分而不具有合理的安全性:
      (1)处于依据说明或警示降低损害风险环节 [4]的开具处方或者其他卫生保健提供者;或
      (2)在处方药或医疗设备制造者知道或有理由知道的卫生保健提供者不会处于依据说明或警示降低损害风险环节情况下的病人。
      (e)处方药或医疗设备的零售商或其他分发者应对该药品或设备所致的损害承担责任,如果:
      (1)该药品或医疗设备在销售或以其他方式分销时包含第2款第a款所定义的制造缺陷;或
      (2)该药品或医疗设备在销售或以其他方式分销时或在此之前,零售商或其他分发者未尽合理注意,并因此导致了人身伤害。
      6 Liability of Commercial Seller or Distributor for Harm Caused by Defective Prescription Drugs and Medical Devices
      (a) A manufacturer of a prescription drug or medical device who sells or otherwise distributes a defective drug or medical device is subject to liability for harm to persons caused by the defect. A prescription drug or medical device is one that may be legally sold or otherwise distributed only pursuant to a health-care provider,s prescription.
      (b) For purposes of liability under Subsection (a), a prescription drug or medical device is defective if at the time of sale or other distribution the drug or medical device:
      (1) contains a manufacturing defect as defined in 2(a); or
      (2) is not reasonably safe due to defective design as defined in Subsection (c); or
      (3) is not reasonably safe due to inadequate instructions or warnings as defined in Subsection (d).
      (c) A prescription drug or medical device is not reasonably safe due to defective design if the foreseeable risks of harm posed by the drug or medical device are sufficiently great in relation to its foreseeable therapeutic benefits that reasonable health-care providers, knowing of such foreseeable risks and therapeutic benefits, would not prescribe the drug or medical device for any class of patients.
      (d) A prescription drug or medical device is not reasonably safe due to inadequate instructions or warnings if reasonable instructions or warnings regarding foreseeable risks of harm are not provided to:
      (1) prescribing and other health-care providers who are in a position to reduce the risks of harm in accordance with the instructions or warnings; or
      (2) the patient when the manufacturer knows or has reason to know that health-care providers will not be in a position to reduce the risks of harm in accordance with the instructions or warnings.
      (e) A retail seller or other distributor of a prescription drug or medical device is subject to liability for harm caused by the drug or device if:
      (1) at the time of sale or other distribution the drug or medical device contains a manufacturing defect as defined in 2(a); or
      (2) at or before the time of sale or other distribution of the drug or medical device the retail seller or other distributor fails to exercise reasonable care and such failure causes harm to persons.

      §7.商业销售者或分销者对缺陷食品导致损害的责任

      从事食品销售或者分销经营活动者,销售或者以其他方式分发存在第2、3、4规定的缺陷的食品,应对该缺陷所造成的人身或财产损害承担责任。根据第2条第a款的规定,如果一个合理的消费者不能预见该食品中含有此种成分,则食品中的该致害成分构成缺陷。
      7 Liability of Commercial Seller or Distributor for Harm Caused by Defective Food Products
      One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing food products who sells or distributes a food product that is defective under §2, §3, or §4 is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by the defect. Under §2(a), a harm-causing ingredient of the food product constitutes a defect if a reasonable consumer would not expect the food product to contain that ingredient.

      §8.商业销售者或分销者对存在缺陷的旧货导致损害的责任

      从事旧货销售或者以其他方式分发的经营者,销售或分发有缺陷的旧货,应对该缺陷所造成的人身或财产损害承担责任,如果该缺陷:
      (a)源于销售者未尽合理注意;或
      (b)是第2条第a款所规定的制造缺陷,或第3条规定的可以推断出的缺陷,并且销售者的产品营销会使处于与购买者相同环节的理性人期望该旧货不会比该产品全新时具有更大的风险;或者
      (c)是第2条和第3条规定的经过销售者或商业分发链条中的前手重制 [5]的旧货;或者
      (d)源于根据第4条的规定,旧货违反了适用于旧货的产品安全法律或法规。
      旧货是指在本条中提到的销售或者以其他方式分发之前,被商业性地出售或者以其他方式分发给商业分发链条以外的购买者并被使用了一段时间的产品。
      8 Liability of Commercial Seller or Distributor of Defective Used Products
      One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing used products who sells or distributes a defective used product is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by the defect if the defect:
      (a) arises from the seller,s failure to exercise reasonable care; or
      (b) is a manufacturing defect under §2(a) or a defect that may be inferred under §3 and the seller,s marketing of the product would cause a reasonable person in the position of the buyer to expect the used product to present no greater risk of defect than if the product were new; or
      (c) is a defect under §2 or §3 in a used product remanufactured by the seller or a predecessor in the commercial chain of distribution of the used product; or
      (d) arises from a used product,s noncompliance under §4 with a product safety statute or regulation applicable to the used product.
      A used product is a product that, prior to the time of sale or other distribution referred to in this Section, is commercially sold or otherwise distributed to a buyer not in the commercial chain of distribution and used for some period of time.

      第二章非基于销售时产品缺陷的商业产品销售者责任

      Chapter 2- Liability of Commercial Product Sellers Not Based on Product Defects at Time of Sale

      §9.商业产品销售者或分销者因错误陈述导致损害的责任

      从事产品销售或者以其他方式分发的经营者,对与产品有关的重要事实作出与产品销售有关的欺诈性的、有过失的或者无知的错误陈述,应对错误陈述导致的人身或财产损害承担责任。
      9 Liability of Commercial Product Seller or Distributor for Harm Caused by Misrepresentation
      One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing products who, in connection with the sale of a product, makes a fraudulent, negligent, or innocent misrepresentation of material fact concerning the product is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by the misrepresentation.

      §10.商业产品销售者或分销者因售后未能警示导致损害的责任

      (a)因销售者未能在产品销售或者以其他方式分发后提出警示而导致人身或财产损害,如果一个处于销售者环节的理性人应该会提出这样的警示,从事产品销售或者以其他方式分发的经营者应该承担责任。
      (b)一个处于销售者环节的理性人,应该会在销售之后提出警示,如果:
      (1)销售者知道或者理应知道产品引起了实质性的人身或财产损害风险;而且
      (3) a warning can be effectively communicated to and acted on by those to whom a warning might be provided; and
      (2)那些应该被提供警示的人能够被确定,并且可以合理的被假设并不知道该损害风险;而且
      (3)警示能够被有效地传达给那些应该被提供警示并根据警示采取行动的人;并且
      (4)损害风险十分巨大,使得承担提供警示的负担有充足的理由。
      10 Liability of Commercial Product Seller or Distributor for Harm Caused by Post-Sale Failure to Warn
      (a) One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing products is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by the seller,s failure to provide a warning after the time of sale or distribution of a product if a reasonable person in the seller,s position would provide such a warning.
      (b) A reasonable person in the seller,s position would provide a warning after the time of sale if:
      (1) the seller knows or reasonably should know that the product poses a substantial risk of harm to persons or property; and
      (2) those to whom a warning might be provided can be identified and can reasonably be assumed to be unaware of the risk of harm; and
      (4) the risk of harm is sufficiently great to justify the burden of providing a warning.

      §11.商业产品销售者或分销者因售后未能召回产品导致损害的责任

      满足下列条件时,从事产品销售或者以其他方式分发的经营者,应对销售者未能在销售或分销后召回该产品从而导致的人身或财产损害承担责任:
      (a)(1)依据法律或法规颁发的政府命令,明确要求销售者或分销者召回该产品。或
      (2)在没有根据第a款第1项召回要求的情况下,销售者或分销者承诺召回该产品;而且
      (b)销售者或分销者未能在召回产品过程中作为理性人行事。
      11 Liability of Commercial Product Seller or Distributor for Harm Caused by Post-Sale Failure to Recall Product
      One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing products is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by the seller,s failure to recall a product after the time of sale or distribution if:
      (a)(1) a governmental directive issued pursuant to a statute or administrative regulation specifically requires the seller or distributor to recall the product; or
      (2) the seller or distributor, in the absence of a recall requirement under Subsection (a)(1), undertakes to recall the product; and
      (b) the seller or distributor fails to act as a reasonable person in recalling the product.

      第三章后手和非真正制造者责任

      Chapter 3- Liability of Successors and Apparent Manufacturers  3 

      §12.后手对前手商业性销售的缺陷产品导致损害的责任

      取得前手公司或其他经济实体资产的后手公司或其他经济实体应对经该前手商业性销售或以其他方式分发的缺陷产品所造成的人身或财产损害承担责任,如果此种取得:
      (a)附有后手承担相关责任的协议;或者
      (b)是为逃避债务责任或前手责任而欺诈性财产转移的结果;
      (c)构成与前手的联营或合并;或者
      (d)导致后手成为前手的延续。
      12 Liability of Successor for Harm Caused by Defective Products Sold Commercially by Predecessor
      A successor corporation or other business entity that acquires assets of a predecessor corporation or other business entity is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by a defective product sold or otherwise distributed commercially by the predecessor if the acquisition:
      (a) is accompanied by an agreement for the successor to assume such liability; or
      (b) results from a fraudulent conveyance to escape liability for the debts or liabilities of the predecessor; or
      (c) constitutes a consolidation or merger with the predecessor; or
      (d) results in the successor becoming a continuation of the predecessor.

      §13.后手对后手自己售后未能警示导致损害的责任

      (a)取得前手公司或其他经济实体资产的后手公司或其他经济实体,无论根据第12条的规定是否应当负责,因对其未能就前手已销售或分发的产品所产生的风险警示用户而造成的人身或财产损害承担责任,如果:
      (1)该后手承诺或同意为该产品提供维护或修理服务,或者与前手产品的购买者形成类似的关系而获得实际或潜在经济利益,并且
      (2)一个处于该后手环节的理性人将提出警示。
      (b)一个处于该后手环节的理性人将提出警示,如果:
      (1)该后手知道或者理应知道产品引起了实质性的人身或财产损害风险;并且
      (2)那些应该被提供警示的人能够被确定,并且可以合理的被假设并不知道该损害风险;而且
      (3)警示能够被有效地传达给那些应该被提供警示并根据警示采取行动的人;并且
      (4)损害风险十分巨大,使得承担提供警示的负担有充足的理由。
      13 Liability of Successor for Harm Caused by Successor’s Own Post-Sale Failure to Warn
       (a) A successor corporation or other business entity that acquires assets of a predecessor corporation or other business entity, whether or not liable under the rule stated in §12, is subject to liability for harm to persons or property caused by the successor,s failure to warn of a risk created by a product sold or distributed by the predecessor if:
      (1) the successor undertakes or agrees to provide services for maintenance or repair of the product or enters into a similar relationship with purchasers of the predecessor,s products giving rise to actual or potential economic advantage to the successor, and
      (2) a reasonable person in the position of the successor would provide a warning.
      (b) A reasonable person in the position of the successor would provide a warning if:
      (1) the successor knows or reasonably should know that the product poses a substantial risk of harm to persons or property; and
       (2) those to whom a warning might be provided can be identified and can reasonably be assumed to be unaware of the risk of harm; and
      (3) a warning can be effectively communicated to and acted on by those to whom a warning might be provided; and
      (4) the risk of harm is sufficiently great to justify the burden of providing a warning.

      §14.将他人制造的产品作为自己产品的销售或分销

      从事产品销售或者以其他方式分发的经营者,将他人制造的产品作为自己产品的销售或分销,应该承担与如果该销售者或者分销者就是该产品制造者相同的责任。
      14 Selling or Distributing as One’s Own a Product Manufactured by Another
      One engaged in the business of selling or otherwise distributing products who sells or distributes as its own a product manufactured by another is subject to the same liability as though the seller or distributor were the product,s manufacturer.

      第四章具有普遍适用性的条款

      Chapter 4- Provisions of General Applicability

      主题1因果关系

      Topic 1- Causation

      §15.支配产品缺陷与损害之间因果联系的通则

      产品缺陷是否导致人身或财产损害根据侵权法上支配因果关系的通行规则和原则来确定。
      15 General Rule Governing Causal Connection Between Product Defect and Harm
      Whether a product defect caused harm to persons or property is determined by the prevailing rules and principles governing causation in tort.

      §16.产品缺陷导致的损害扩大

      (a)当产品在商业销售或以其他方式分发时存在缺陷,而且该缺陷使得原告的损害扩大到因其他原因造成的损害之外,该产品销售者应对扩大的损害承担责任。
      (b)如果有证据支持确定没有产品缺陷情形下其他原因会造成的损害,那么该产品销售者的责任就仅限于可归责于产品缺陷的损害扩大部分 [6]
      (c)如果没有证据支持确定第b款规定的没有产品缺陷情形下其他原因会造成的损害,那么该产品销售者应对可归责于该缺陷及其他原因的全部原告损害负责。
      (d)被判决 [7]根据第b款对原告遭受的部分损害或根据第c款对原告的全部损害负责的缺陷产品销售者,与其他对造成损害应负法律责任的当事人,由可适用的连带责任规则确定承担连带责任或按份责任.
      16 Increased Harm Due to Product Defect
      (a) When a product is defective at the time of commercial sale or other distribution and the defect is a substantial factor in increasing the plaintiff,s harm beyond that which would have resulted from other causes, the product seller is subject to liability for the increased harm.
      (b) If proof supports a determination of the harm that would have resulted from other causes in the absence of the product defect, the product seller,s liability is limited to the increased harm attributable solely to the product defect.
      (c) If proof does not support a determination under Subsection (b) of the harm that would have resulted in the absence of the product defect, the product seller is liable for all of the plaintiff,s harm attributable to the defect and other causes.
      (d) A seller of a defective product that is held liable for part of the harm suffered by the plaintiff under Subsection (b), or all of the harm suffered by the plaintiff under Subsection (c), is jointly and severally liable or severally liable with other parties who bear legal responsibility for causing the harm, determined by applicable rules of joint and several liability.

      主题2积极抗辩

      Topic 2- Affirmative Defenses

      §17.原告、缺陷产品的销售者或分销者以及其他人之间的责任分担

      (a)如果原告的行为与产品缺陷相结合导致了损害,且原告的行为不符合确定适当注意标准的普遍适用规则,则原告因缺陷产品导致损害而可获得的赔偿金可以被减少。
      (b)根据第a款减少的方式与范围,以及在多名被告之间对原告可获得的救济进行分担,应当由责任分担的普遍适用规则支配。
      17 Apportionment of Responsibility Between or Among Plaintiff, Sellers and Distributors of Defective Products, and Others
      (a) A plaintiff,s recovery of damages for harm caused by a product defect may be reduced if the conduct of the plaintiff combines with the product defect to cause the harm and the plaintiff,s conduct fails to conform to generally applicable rules establishing appropriate standards of care.
      (b) The manner and extent of the reduction under Subsection (a) and the apportionment of plaintiff,s recovery among multiple defendants are governed by generally applicable rules apportioning responsibility.

      §18.免责声明,责任限制,弃权及其他约定免责作为对人身损害产品责任请求的抗辩

      产品的销售者或其他分销者所作的免责声明和赔偿限制,产品的购买者的弃权,以及其他类似的约定免责,无论口头或书面,都不阻碍或减少因人身损害而对全新产品的销售者或其他分销者另行提起的有效产品责任请求。
      18 Disclaimers, Limitations, Waivers, and Other Contractual Exculpations as Defenses to Products Liability Claims for Harm to Persons 
      Disclaimers and limitations of remedies by product sellers or other distributors, waivers by product purchasers, and other similar contractual exculpations, oral or written, do not bar or reduce otherwise [8] valid products liability claims against sellers or other distributors of new products for harm to persons.

      主题3定义

      Topic 3- Definitions

      §19.“产品”的定义

      为本重述的目的:
      (a)产品是经过商业性销售以供使用或消费的有形动产。其他种类如不动产和电,当它们的销售及使用情形与有形动产的销售及使用足够类似而适用本重述所述规则显得适当时,也是产品。
      (b)服务,即使是商业性提供的,也不是产品。
      (c)人类血液及人类组织器官,即使是商业性提供的,也不受本重述规则的支配。
      19 Definition of "Product"
      For purposes of this Restatement:
      (a) A product is tangible personal property distributed commercially for use or consumption. Other items, such as real property and electricity, are products when the context of their distribution and use is sufficiently analogous to the distribution and use of tangible personal property that it is appropriate to apply the rules stated in this Restatement.
      (b) Services, even when provided commercially, are not products.
      (c) Human blood and human tissue, even when provided commercially, are not subject to the rules of this Restatement.

      §20.“销售或以其他方式分发者”的定义

      为本重述的目的:
      (a)在商业情形下向他人转让所有权,或是为了使用或消费,或是为了指向最终使用或消费的转售,该行为人是在销售产品。商业产品销售者包括但不限于制造商、批发商及零售商。
      (b)在非销售性商业交易中,不是为了使用或者消费,也不是作为导向最终使用或消费的预备步骤,向他人提供产品,该行为人是在以其他方式分发产品。商业性非销售产品分发者包括但不限于出租人、寄托人及将其作为促进此类产品的使用、消费或者其他商业活动的一种方式而提供产品者。
      (c)如果在商业交易中提供产品和服务的结合体,或是该交易作为一个整体,或是其中的产品,符合第a款或第b款规定的标准,该行为人也是在销售或以其他方式分发产品。
      20 Definition of "One Who Sells or Otherwise Distributes"
      For purposes of this Restatement:
      (a) One sells a product when, in a commercial context, one transfers ownership thereto either for use or consumption or for resale leading to ultimate use or consumption. Commercial product sellers include, but are not limited to, manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers.
      (b) One otherwise distributes a product when, in a commercial transaction other than a sale, one provides the product to another either for use or consumption or as a preliminary step leading to ultimate use or consumption. Commercial nonsale product distributors include, but are not limited to, lessors, bailors, and those who provide products to others as a means of promoting either the use or consumption of such products or some other commercial activity.
      (c) One also sells or otherwise distributes a product when, in a commercial transaction, one provides a combination of products and services and either the transaction taken as a whole, or the product component thereof, satisfies the criteria in Subsection (a) or (b).

      §21.“人身或财产损害”的定义:可获得的对经济损失的救济

      为本重述的目的,人身或财产损害包括以如下列举为对象的损害所导致的经济损失:
      (a)原告的人身;或
      (b)其他的人身,当对他人的损害妨碍了原告受侵权法保护的利益时;或
      (c)除了缺陷产品本身之外的原告财产。
      21 Definition of "Harm to Persons or Property": Recovery for Economic Loss
      For purposes of this Restatement, harm to persons or property includes economic loss if caused by harm to:
      (a) the plaintiff,s person; or
      (b) the person of another when harm to the other interferes with an interest of the plaintiff protected by tort law; or
      (c) the plaintiff,s property other than the defective product itself.
      
 
注释:
[1] 根据第20条第b款的说明,“otherwise distribute”是不同于第20条第a款规定的销售的,在非销售性商业交易中,不是为了使用或者消费,也不是作为导向最终使用或消费的预备步骤,向他人提供产品的行为,笔者将其翻译为“以其他方式分发”,意在避免使用“分销”这一带有“销售”意味的用语,并突出“otherwise”所表明的“以别的方式”这一特殊限定。。
   [2] 关于“one”的翻译,参见本条第e款导语部分“drug or device”的用语,应是药品或设备。
   [3] “sufficiently great in relation to”是具有相比但不是以比较大小的结果作为判断标准的表达,即可预见的风险相对于可预见的医疗效果相比,具有绝对意义上的“十分巨大”即可,不以可预见的风险在相对意义上大于可预见的医疗效果为前提。
   [4] “in a position to”中的“position”用语直译是“地位”,实际是指在描绘在风险预防链条中处于根据商品的说明或者警示来决定是否提供该药品或设备的环节,因此笔者意译为“环节”。
   [5] 本重述的官方评论并未对“remanufacture”作出定义,根据官方评论种使用该词的上下文理解,应该是由于“recondition”(翻新)和“rebuild”(改造)等行为达到类似“manufacture”的程度,因此也不同于我国《民法通则》第134条第1款第6项规定的“重作”,笔者暂将其直译为“重制”。
   [6] “部分”的用语是译者根据本条第d款的“part of the harm”增加的。
   [7] 为区别“is held liable for”和“is liable for”、“is subject to liability for”和“bear legal responsibility for”,四种不同表达分别被翻译为:“被判决为……负责”,“对……负责”、“对……承担责任”和“为……承担法律责任”。
   [8] 此处的“otherwise”是“另行(起诉)”的意思,与本重述其他条文的“otherwise distribute”意思不同。
 
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