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王竹译:美国统一州法委员会《统一侵权责任分摊法案》(1955年修订)  

2010-08-07 08:22:00|  分类: 学术翻译 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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美国统一州法委员会《统一侵权责任分摊法案》(1955年修订)

王竹译

      (中英文对照参考译本)
     
      Uniform Contribution Among Tortfeasors Act (1955 Revised Act)
      《统一侵权责任分摊法案》 [1](1955年修订)
     
      Copyright ?1955 by
      NCCUSL(National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws)
 
 § 1. [Right to Contribution].
      第1条 分摊请求权
       (a) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, where two or more persons become jointly or severally liable in tort for the same injury to person or property or for the same wrongful death, there is a right of contribution among them even though judgment has not been recovered against all or any of them.
      (a)除非本法另有规定,当两个或者两个以上的人因侵权行为对同一人身或财产损害或死亡承担连带责任时,他们之间享有分摊请求权,即使在判决尚未通过向他们全部或者某人求偿而执行亦然。
      (b) The right of contribution exists only in favor of a tortfeasor who has paid more than his pro rata share of the common liability, and his total recovery is limited to the amount paid by him in excess of his pro rata share. No tortfeasor is compelled to make contribution beyond his own pro rata share of the entire liability.
      (b)分摊请求权仅因某一共同侵权行人支付了超过其在共同责任中的按份份额 [2]时而产生,其可获赔偿的数额以其支付超过其按份份额为限。任何共同侵权人都不能够被强迫分摊超过其所占全部责任的按份份额。
      (c) There is no right of contribution in favor of any tortfeasor who has intentionally [wilfully or wantonly] caused or contributed to the injury or wrongful death.
      (c)因故意(蓄意或放任) [3]导致或者助成损害或者不当致死的任何共同侵权人不享有分摊请求权。
      (d) A tortfeasor who enters into a settlement with a claimant is not entitled to recover contribution from another tortfeasor whose liability for the injury or wrongful death is not extinguished by the settlement nor in respect to any amount paid in a settlement which is in excess of what was reasonable.
      (d)某一与原告和解的共同侵权人不能向未因其和解免除其因造成损害或不当致死责任的其他共同侵权人寻求分摊,也不能因其为和解而支付的超过其责任的合理数额而寻求分摊。 [4]
       (e) A liability insurer, who by payment has discharged in full or in part the liability of a tortfeasor and has thereby discharged in full its obligation as insurer, is subrogated to the tortfeasor,s right of contribution to the extent of the amount it has paid in excess of the tortfeasor,s pro rata share of the common liability. This provision does not limit or impair any right of subrogation arising from any other relationship.
      (e)责任保险人,通过支付全部或者部分免除了某一侵权人责任,同时也免除了其作为保险人的全部责任的,可以在超过该侵权人在共同责任中的按份份额的范围内代位行使分摊请求权。本规定并不限制或者削弱任何基于其他关系的代位权。
      (f) This Act does not impair any right of indemnity under existing law. Where one tortfeasor is entitled to indemnity from another, the right of the indemnity obligee is for indemnity and not contribution, and the indemnity obligor is not entitled to contribution from the obligee for any portion of his indemnity obligation.
      (f)本法并不削弱任何基于现行法的追偿权。当某一侵权人享有对他人追偿权时,追偿债权人是基于追偿而非分摊,追偿债务人不享有向债权人请求任何分摊其追偿债务的权利。 [5]
      (g) This Act shall not apply to breaches of trust or of other fiduciary obligation.
      (g)本法不适用于违背信托或者其他信义义务的情形。
 
 § 2. [Pro Rata Shares].
      第2条 按份份额
      In determining the pro rata shares of tortfeasors in the entire liability (a) their relative degrees of fault shall not be considered; (b) if equity requires the collective liability of some as a group shall constitute a single share; and (c) principles of equity applicable to contribution generally shall apply.
      在确定各侵权人在整个责任中的按份份额时(a)他们之间的过错相对程度不应该被考虑;(b)如果衡平法要求其中数人作为团体集体归责构成单一份额;且(c)可适用于追偿的衡平规则应该基本被适用。
 
  § 3. [Enforcement].
      第三条 强制执行
      (a) Whether or not judgment has been entered in an action against two or more tortfeasors for the same injury or wrongful death, contribution may be enforced by separate action.
      (a)无论因同一损害或者不当致死是否在同一诉讼中对两个或者两个以上的共同侵权人作出判决,分摊可以通过另一独立诉讼强制执行。
      (b) Where a judgment has been entered in an action against two or more tortfeasors for the same injury or wrongful death, contribution may be enforced in that action by judgment in favor of one against other judgment defendants by motion upon notice to all parties to the action.
      (b)当因同一损害或者不当致死在同一诉讼中对两个或者两个以上的共同侵权人作出判决时,可以通过通知各方参加该诉讼的动议实现在该诉讼中作出某一侵权人针对另一被告的分摊判决。
      (c) If there is a judgment for the injury or wrongful death against the tortfeasor seeking contribution, any separate action by him to enforce contribution must be commenced within one year after the judgment has become final by lapse of time for appeal or after appellate review.
      (c)如果已经针对寻求分摊的侵权人作出关于伤害或不当致死的判决,其任何单独的强制执行分摊的诉讼必须于该判决因为上诉期限终止或者经过上诉审理成为终局判决一年之内提起。
      (d) If there is no judgment for the injury or wrongful death against the tortfeasor seeking contribution, his right of contribution is barred unless he has either (1) discharged by payment the common liability within the statute of limitations period applicable to claimant,s right of action against him and has commenced his action for contribution within one year after payment, or (2) agreed while action is pending against him to discharge the common liability and has within one year after the agreement paid the liability and commenced his action for contribution.
      (d)如果尚无针对寻求分摊的侵权人作出关于伤害或不当致死的判决,其分摊请求权因而被阻却,除非要么(1)在适用于原告针对其提起诉讼的法定时效内通过支付履行共同责任并且在支付后一年内已经提起其分摊诉讼,或者(2)在针对其诉讼未决之时已经同意履行共同责任并且达成协议一年之内支付赔偿且提起分摊诉讼。
      (e) The recovery of a judgment for an injury or wrongful death against one tortfeasor does not of itself discharge the other tortfeasors from liability for the injury or wrongful death unless the judgment is satisfied. The satisfaction of the judgment does not impair any right of contribution.
      除非判决已经被全部执行,通过判决获得从某一共同侵权人处获得的损害或者不当致死赔偿并不因其本身而免除其他共同侵权人因该损害或者不当致死所负的责任。判决的全部执行并不削弱任何分摊请求权。 [6]
      (f) The judgment of the court in determining the liability of the several defendants to the claimant for an injury or wrongful death shall be binding as among such defendants in determining their right to contribution.
      (f)确定数个被告对原告承担因损害或者不当致死而承担责任的法院判决应该约束这些被告之间所享有的分摊请求权。
 
 § 4. [Release or Covenant Not to Sue].
      When a release or a covenant not to sue or not to enforce judgment is given in good faith to one of two or more persons liable in tort for the same injury or the same wrongful death:
      当在因侵权导致同一损害或者不当致死的案件中的一个或者多个被告被诚实的免除责任或者达成不诉讼或者不强制执行判决协议时:
      (a) It does not discharge any of the other tortfeasors from liability for the injury or wrongful death unless its terms so provide; but it reduces the claim against the others to the extent of any amount stipulated by the release or the covenant, or in the amount of the consideration paid for it, whichever is the greater; and,
      (a)除非提及,并不免除其他任何共同侵权人因该损害或者不当致死的责任;但责任免除或者协议约定的范围内,或者为此指出的对价如果更大的情形下依照后者,减少对他人请求权;并且 [7]
      (b) It discharges the tortfeasor to whom it is given from all liability for contribution to any other tortfeasor.
      (b)免除了所有该侵权人被其他任何共同侵权人请求分摊的责任。 [8]
 
 § 5. [Uniformity of Interpretation].
      第5条 解释的统一性
      本法在被说明和解释时候应该致力于实现其在生效各州统一法律的一般目的。
      This Act shall be so interpreted and construed as to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law of those states that enact it.
 
§ 6. [Short Title].
      第6条 简称
      This Act may be cited as the Uniform Contribution Among Tortfeasors Act.
      本法被引用时应被称为《统一侵权责任分摊法案》
 
 § 7. [Severability].
      第7条 可分性
      If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person is held invalid, the invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the Act which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application and to this end the provisions of this Act are severable.
      如果本法的任何部分或者其对某人的适用被判定为无效,该无效性不应影响本法其他部分的有效性或者除该无效部分或者无效适用之外的本法适用的有效性,在该意义上本法的各个部分是可分的。
 
 § 8. [Repeal].
      第8条 废除
      其他法案或者法案的任何部分因与本法各部分不一致而废止。
      All acts or parts of acts which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed
 
§ 9. [Time of Taking Effect].
      第9条 生效时间
      This Act shall take effect __________.
      本法自_____起生效。
     

 
注释:
[1] 本法名称为意译,直译应为“《在(共同)侵权行为人之间进行分摊的统一法》”。
   [2] 在美国侵权法70年来责任分担理论的发展过程中,“pro rata”和“proportionate”具有“按照比例”的意思,前者以均分为原则一般不考虑数个加害人人之间的相对过错比例,后者则在受害人和各方加害人之间考虑相对过错比例因而更符合现代侵权法的按照比例分配的意思,笔者建议将“pro rata”译为“按份”,如“pro rata obligatio”便是按份之债的意思,而将“proportionate”译为“按比例”。
   [3] 根据本款官方注释,将"wilfully or wantonly" 放在括号中,是为了协调在部分州由于对这两个术语表示的范围较小,如果包括这两个属于则限制范围过宽的情形。
   [4] 根据本款官方注释,本款内容相当于1939年《统一侵权责任分摊法案》第2条第3款,但表述更为完整、精确。
   [5] 根据本款官方注释,本款是对1939年《统一侵权责任分摊法案》第6条的延续与发展,并明确了使用追偿权的情形双方不享有分摊请求权。
   [6] 根据本款官方注释,本款是对1939年《统一侵权责任分摊法案》第3条的延续。
   [7] 根据本款官方注释,本款是对1939年《统一侵权责任分摊法案》第4条的完善。在免责基础上增加了应该具有类似效果的达成不诉讼或者不强制执行判决的规定。
   [8] 根据本款官方注释,本款修改了1939年《统一侵权责任分摊法案》第5条不允许免除被分摊责任的规定,扫除了本法被采纳的重大障碍之一。
 
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