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这是“消保主义者”王小宝的博客。“小宝”,是“消保”(消费者权益保护)的谐音。王小宝本科学习商品检验,后改修法学,获得法学博士,天府大学法学院教授。王小宝对侵害消费者权益的行为疾恶如仇,主张依法维护消费者权利。

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王竹译:美国统一州法委员会《统一比较过错法案》(1979修订版)  

2010-08-07 08:19:58|  分类: 学术翻译 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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美国统一州法委员会《统一比较过错法案》(1979修订版)

王竹译

                (中英文对照参考译本)     

      Uniform Comparative Fault Act (1979 Revised)
      JULY 29 - AUGUST 5, 1977/AMENDED, AUGUST 3 - 10, 1979
      《统一比较过错法案》(1979修订版)
Copyright ?1979
by
      NCCUSL(National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws)
     
      译者说明:本译文系作者参与起草杨立新教授主编《中华人民共和国侵权责任法草案建议稿》过程中,为学习和研究目的而进行的翻译。本文件仅供个人学习、研究参考之用,请勿作他用,后果自负。

      Section 1. [Effect of Contributory Fault]

      第1条 助成过错的效力
      (a) In an action based on fault seeking to recover damages for injury or death to person or harm to property, any contributory fault chargeable to the claimant diminishes proportionately the amount awarded as compensatory damages for an injury attributable to the claimant,s contributory default, but does not bar recovery. This rule applies whether or not under prior law the claimant,s contributory fault constituted a defense or was disregarded under applicable legal doctrines, such as last clear chance.
      (a)在基于过错寻求人身伤害、死亡或者财产损害赔偿的诉讼中,任何可归于原告的助成过错成比例的减少原告因该损害可以获得的损害赔偿总额,但并不阻碍获得赔偿。无论受害人助成过失根据此前法律是否构成抗辩事由,或者基于适用类似“最后清楚机会”等法律原则而不被考虑,本规则均适用。
       (b) "Fault" includes acts or omissions that are in any measure negligent or reckless toward the person or property of the actor or others, or that subject a person to strict tort liability. The term also includes breach of warranty, unreasonable assumption of risk not constituting an enforceable express consent, misuse of a product for which the defendant otherwise would be liable, and unreasonable failure to avoid an injury or to mitigate damages. Legal requirements of causal relation apply both to fault as the basis for liability and to contributory fault.
      (b)“过错”包括根据任何标准被判定为对行为人自己或者他人的人身或者财产的过失或者不顾后果,或者导致某人承担严格侵权责任的作为或者不作为。本术语还包括违反担保、不构成可强制明示同意的不合理自甘风险、否则将导致被告承担责任的产品误用和不合理的未能避免损害或者减轻损失。对作为责任和助成过错基础的过错均适用法律因果关系要求。

      Section 2. [Apportionment of Damages]

      第2条损害赔偿分担
      (a) In all actions involving fault of more than one party to the action, including third-party defendants and persons who have been released under Section 6, the court, unless otherwise agreed by all parties, shall instruct the jury to answer special interrogatories or, if there is no jury, shall make findings, indicating:
      (a)在所有涉及多个该案当事人,包括第三方被告和基于本法第6条被免除责任的人在内,有过错的诉讼中,除非所有各方达成协议,否则法院必须指示陪审团回答特别质询,或者在没有陪审团的情形下作出裁决,说明:
      (1) the amount of damages each claimant would be entitled to recover if contributory fault is disregarded; and
      (1)如果不考虑助成过错每个原告可能获得的赔偿数额;和
      (2) the percentage of the total fault of all of the parties to each claim that is allocated to each claimant, defendant, third-party defendant, and person who has been released from liability under Section 6. For this purpose the court may determine that two or more persons are to be treated as a single party.
      (2)对每一当事人,包括每一原告、被告、第三方被告和根据本法第6条被免除责任的人,在每一请求的总过错中的百分比。法院可以根据本项的目的而决定两个或者两个以上的人作为一个当事人。
      (b) In determining the percentages of fault, the trier of fact shall consider both the nature of the conduct of each party at fault and the extent of the causal relation between the conduct and the damages claimed.
      (b)在决定过错的百分比时,事实审理者应该同时考虑有过错各方的行为性质和行为与主张的损害之间的因果关系范围。
      (c) The court shall determine the award of damages to each claimant in accordance with the findings, subject to any reduction under Section 6, and enter judgment against each party liable on the basis of rules of joint-and-several liability. For purposes of contribution under Sections 4 and 5, the court also shall determine and state in the judgment each party,s equitable share of the obligation to each claimant in accordance with the respective percentages of fault.
      (c)法院应该依照上述事实裁定决定判决给每个原告的损害赔偿金,包括任何基于第6条的减少,并对每一基于连带责任规则基础的当事人作出相应判决。基于本法第4条和第5条的分摊目的,法院还应该在判决中根据各自的过错百分比相应的决定和明确每一当事人对每一原告衡平债务份额。
      (d) Upon motion made not later than [one year] after judgment is entered, the court shall determine whether all or part of a party,s equitable share of the obligation is uncollectible from that party, and shall reallocate any uncollectible amount among the other parties, including a claimant at fault, according to their respective percentages of fault. The party whose liability is reallocated is nonetheless subject to contribution and to any continuing liability to the claimant on the judgment.
      (d)根据判决作出(一年)内提出的动议,原判决法院应该决定某一当事人全部或者部分衡平债务份额不可能从该方受偿,并重新在包括有过错的原告在内的其他各方中,根据他们各自的过错百分比分配该不能受偿的数额。其责任被重新分配的当事人仍然可能被寻求分摊并基于判决对原告承担继续承担责任。

      Section 3. [Set-off]

      第3条 抵销
      A claim and counterclaim shall not be set off against each other, except by agreement of both parties. On motion, however, the court, if it finds that the obligation of either party is likely to be uncollectible, may order that both parties make payment into court for distribution. The court shall distribute the funds received and declare obligations discharged as if the payment into court by either party had been a payment to the other party and any distribution of those funds back to the party making payment had been a payment to him by the other party.
      除非双方同意,请求和反请求不能相互抵销。尽管基于动议,如果法院查明双方当事人都可能无法清偿债务,可以命令双方当事人向法院进行支付以进行分配。法院应该对收到的基金进行分配并宣布债务被清偿,各方向法院支付的效果应该如向对方支付一样,任何返还给一方的基金相当于来自于对方的支付。

      Section 4. [Right of Contribution]

      第4条分摊请求权
      (a) A right of contribution exists between or among two or more persons who are jointly and severally liable upon the same indivisible claim for the same injury, death, or harm, whether or not judgment has been recovered against all or any of them. It may be enforced either in the original action or by a separate action brought for that purpose. The basis for contribution is each person,s equitable share of the obligation, including the equitable share of a claimant at fault, as determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.
      (a)在两个或者两个以上为同一不可分的人身伤害、死亡或者财产损害承担连带的当事人之间,无论判决是否已经针对他们中的全部或者部分得到执行,均产生分摊请求权。该分摊请求权可以通过原诉讼或者为此目的单独提起诉讼来强制执行。分摊请求权的基础是各方当事人,包括有过错的原告根据本法第2条决定的衡平债务份额。
      (b) Contribution is available to a person who enters into a settlement with a claimant only (1) if the liability of the person against whom contribution is sought has been extinguished and (2) to the extent that the amount paid in settlement was reasonable.
      (b)达成和解协议的当事人的分摊请求侵权必须是(1)如果被寻求分摊的当事人的责任已经被清偿并且(2)其为和解的范围支付了合理数目。

      Section 5. [Enforcement of Contribution]

      第5条 分摊的强制执行
      (a) If the proportionate fault of the parties to a claim for contribution has been established previously by the court, as provided by Section 2, a party paying more than his equitable share of the obligation, upon motion, may recover judgment for contribution.
      (a)如果各方为分摊针对某一请求的比例过错已经根据本法第2条经法院确定,那么支付了超过其衡平债务份额的当事人,可以提出动议而寻求判决的分摊。
      (b) If the proportionate fault of the parties to the claim for contribution has not been established by the court, contribution may be enforced in a separate action, whether or not a judgment has been rendered against either the person seeking contribution or the person from whom contribution is being sought.
      (b)如果各方为分摊针对某一请求的比例过错尚未经过法院确定,分摊可以通过单独的诉讼来执行,无论该判决是由寻求分摊或者被寻求分摊的当事人提出的。
      (c) If a judgment has been rendered, the action for contribution must be commended within [one year] after the judgment becomes final. If no judgment has been rendered, the person bringing the action for contribution either must have (1) discharged by payment the common liability within the period of the statute of limitations applicable to the claimant,s right of action against him and commenced the action for contribution within one year after payment, or (2) agreed while action was pending to discharge the common liability and, within one year after the agreement, have paid the liability and commenced an action for contribution.
      (c)提起分摊之诉必须在判决作出并成为终局判决(一年)之内。如果尚未作出判决,那么提起分摊之诉的当事人必须要么已经(1)在适用于原告针对其提起诉讼的法定时效内通过支付履行共同责任并且在支付后一年内已经提起其分摊诉讼,或者(2)在针对其诉讼未决之时已经同意履行共同责任并且达成协议一年之内支付赔偿且提起分摊诉讼。

      Section 6. [Effect of Release]

      第6条 责任免除的效力
      A release, covenant not to sue, or similar agreement entered into by a claimant and a person liable discharges that person from all liability for contribution, but it does not discharge any other persons liable upon the same claim unless it so provides. However, the claim of the releasing person against other persons is reduced by the amount of the released person,s equitable share of the obligation, determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.
      原告与某一被告达成责任免除、不起诉或者类似协议解除了该被告被寻求分摊的责任,除非包含相关内容,该协议并不解除其他任何该请求中的当事人的责任。然而,免除他人责任的原告对其他被告的请求权在被免除责任被告根据本法第2条决定的衡平债务份额范围内被减少。

      Section 7. [Uniformity of Application and Construction]

      第7条 适用与解释的统一性
      This Act shall be applied and construed so as to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of this Act among states enacting it.
      本法在被适用和解释时候应该致力于实现其在生效各州统一关于本法主旨法律的一般目的。

      Section 8. [Short Title]

      第8条 简称
      This Act may be cited as the Uniform Comparative Fault Act.
      本法被引用时应被称为《统一比较过错法案》

      Section 9. [Severability]

      第9条 可分性
      If any provision of this Act or application of it to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of the Act that can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this Act are severable.
      如果本法的任何部分或者其对某人或者在某种情况下的适用被判定为无效,该无效性不应影响本法其他部分的有效性或者除该无效部分或者无效适用之外的本法适用的有效性,在该意义上本法的各个部分是可分的。

      Section 10. [Prospective Effect of Act]

      第10条 本法案生效无溯及力
      This Act applies to all [claims for relief] [causes of action] accruing after its effective date.
      本法适用于生效日期之后的所有(救济请求)(诉讼理由)。

      Section 11. [Repeal]

      第11条 废除
      The following acts and parts of acts are repealed:
      以下法案和法案部分被废除:
     
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