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王竹、沈磊译:美国统一州法委员会《统一侵权责任分摊法案(1939)》  

2010-08-06 23:12:18|  分类: 学术翻译 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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美国统一州法委员会《统一侵权责任分摊法案(1939)》

王竹、沈磊译

      Copyright ?1939 by
NCCUSL(National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws)

      译者说明:本译文系作者参与起草杨立新教授主编《中华人民共和国侵权责任法草案建议稿》过程中,为学习和研究目的而进行的翻译。本文件仅供个人学习、研究参考之用,请勿作他用,后果自负。
 
      § 1. Joint Tortfeasors Defined.
      For the purposes of this Act the term "joint tortfeasors" means two or more persons jointly or severally liable in tort for the same injury to person or property, whether or not judgment has been recovered against all or some of them.
      第1条 共同侵权人的定义
      为本法目的所使用的术语“共同侵权人”是指两个或者两个以上共同或者分别对同一人身或者财产损害承担侵权责任的人,无论判决是否已经通过由他们中的全部或者部分人承担。
      § 2. Right of Contribution; Accrual [2]; Pro Rata Share.
      第2条 分摊请求权;增加;按份份额 [3]
      (1) The right of contribution exists among joint tortfeasors.
      (1)分摊请求权在共同侵权人之间存在。
      (2) A joint tortfeasor is not entitled to a money judgment for contribution until he has by payment discharged the common liability or has paid more than his pro rata share thereof.
      (2)某一共同侵权人不享有分摊请求权,除非他通过清偿免除了共同责任或者赔偿了超过他自己的按份份额。
      (3) A joint tortfeasor who enters into a settlement with the injured person is not entitled to recover contribution from another joint tortfeasor whose liability to the injured person is not extinguished by the settlement.
      (3)与受害人和解的共同侵权人无权向其他未因和解而免除责任的共同侵权人请求分摊。
      [ (4) When there is such a disproportion of fault among joint tortfeasors as to render inequitable an equal distribution among them of the common liability by contribution, the relative degrees of fault of the joint tortfeasors shall be considered in determining their pro rata shares.]
      [(4)当共同侵权人通过分摊平均分担共同责任显得与他们的过错非常不成比例时,他们的相对过错应该在决定比例时被考虑。]
      § 3. Judgment Against One Tortfeasor.
      第3条针对某一(共同)侵权人的判决
      The recovery of a judgment by the injured person against one joint tortfeasor does not discharge the other joint tortfeasors.
      受害人基于针对某一共同侵权人的判决所获赔偿并不免除其他共同侵权人的责任。
      § 4. Release; Effect on Injured Person,s Claim.
      第4条 责任免除;对受害人请求权的影响
      A release by the injured person of one joint tortfeasor, whether before or after judgment, does not discharge the other tortfeasors unless the release so provides; but reduces the claim against the other tortfeasors in the amount of the consideration paid for the release, or in any amount or proportion by which the release provides that the total claim shall be reduced, if greater than the consideration paid.
      受害人对某一共同侵权人的责任免除,无论是判决之前或者之后,都不免除其他共同侵权人的责任,除非该责任免除包含该内容;但在为免除责任而支付的对价,或者如果被免除的数量或者比例超过了支付的对价则在该范围内减少对其他共同侵权人的请求范围。
     § 5. Release; Effect on Right of Contribution.
      第5条 责任免除;对分摊请求权的影响
      A release by the injured person of one joint tortfeasor does not relieve him from liability to make contribution to another joint tortfeasor unless the release is given before the right of the other tortfeasor to secure a money judgment for contribution has accrued, and provides for a reduction, to the extent of the pro rata share of the released tortfeasor, of the injured person,s damages recoverable against all the other tortfeasors.
      受害人对某一共同侵权人的责任免除并不解除其被其他共同侵权人的寻求分摊的责任,除非该责任免除是在其他共同侵权人保证对分摊请求判决的增长之前,并且提供了在受害人从其他共同侵权人可获得的赔偿数额中被免除责任的共同侵权人的比例范围内的减少作出的。 [4]
      § 6. Indemnity.
      第6条 追偿
      This Act does not impair any right of indemnity under existing law.
      本法不削弱任何基于现行法的追偿权。
      § 7. Third Party Practice, Amended Complaints, Counterclaims and Cross-Complaints, and Motion Practice. [5]
      (第7条 第三人引入诉讼,修改的诉状,反诉和交叉诉状,以及动议程序)
      [ (1) Before answering, a defendant seeking contribution in a tort action may move ex parte or, after answering, on notice to the plaintiff, for leave as a third-party plaintiff to serve a summons and complaint upon a person not a party to the action who is or may be liable as a joint tortfeasor to him or to the plaintiff for all or part of the plaintiff,s claim against him.
      [(1)在答辩之前,某一侵权诉讼中的被告寻求分摊可以通过单方动议,或者在答辩之后,在告知原告的情况下,作为第三方原告对任何应该或者可能应该作为共同侵权人,对其或者对第三方原告的非该案当事人,为全部或者部分针对第三方被告的请求而送达传票和诉状。
      If the motion is granted and the summons and complaint are served, the person so served, hereinafter called the third-party defendant, shall make his defense to the complaint of the plaintiff and to the third-party complaint in the same manner as defenses are made by an original defendant to an original complaint.
      如果动议被接受并且传票和诉状被送达,被送达人,即下文所称第三方被告,应该以与原被告对原诉状抗辩的同样方式对原告的诉状和第三方诉状提出抗辩。
      The third-party defendant may assert any defenses which the third-party plaintiff has to the plaintiff,s claim.
      第三方被告可以主张任何第三方原告可以针对原告的抗辩。
      The plaintiff shall amend his pleadings to assert against the third-party defendant any claim which the plaintiff might have asserted against the third-party defendant had he been joined originally as a defendant.
      原告应该修改其请求以针对第三方被告主张如果第三方被告已经在原诉讼中作为被告而会主张的请求。
       The third-party defendant is bound by the adjudication of the third-party plaintiff,s liability to the plaintiff as well as of his own liability to the plaintiff and to the third-party plaintiff.
      第三方被告受到与其自身对原告和第三方原告的责任相同的关于第三方原告对原告的责任的判决拘束。
       A third-party defendant may proceed under this Section against any person not a party to the action who is or may be liable as a joint tortfeasor to him or to the third-party plaintiff for all or part of the claim made in the action against the third-party defendant.
      第三方被告可以根据本条针对任何应该或者可能应该作为共同侵权人,对其或者对第三方原告的非该案当事人,为全部或者部分针对第三方被告的请求进行诉讼。
      (2) When a counterclaim is asserted against a plaintiff he may cause a third party to be brought in under circumstances which under this Section would entitle a defendant to do so.
      (2)当出现针对原告的反诉,他可以在根据本条将授权被告的情况下引入第三方。
      (3) A pleader may either (a) state as a cross-claim against a co-party any claim that the co-party is or may be liable to the cross-claimant for all or part of a claim asserted in the action against the cross-claimant; or (b) move for judgment for contribution against any other joint judgment debtor, where in a single action a judgment has been entered against joint tortfeasors one of whom has discharged the judgment by payment or has paid more than his pro rata share thereof. If relief can be obtained as provided in this Subsection no independent action shall be maintained to enforce the claim for contribution.
      (3)在单一诉讼中,针对共同请求人中一人已经通过清偿履行判决或者支付了超过其按份份额的判决,诉讼当事人可能既可以(a)陈述作为针对共同当事人交叉请求的任何关于共同当事人任何应该或者可能应该对针对交叉诉状提出的交叉诉讼中的全部或者部分负责的请求;也可以(b)关于针对任何其他共同判决债务人的分摊判决的动议。如果可以根据本款而免除责任,则没有保持分摊请求权强制力的独立诉讼。
      (4) The court may render such judgments, one or more in number, as may be suitable under the provisions of this Act.
      (4)法院可以根据本法相关部分相应的作出一个或者数个此类判决。
      (5) As among joint tortfeasors against whom a judgment has been entered in a single action, the provisions of Section 2, Subsection (4) of this Act apply only if the issue of the proportionate fault is litigated between them by cross-complaint in that action.]
      (5)在被纳入一个独立诉讼判决中的共同请求人中,本法第2条第4款仅适用于通过交叉诉状在该诉讼中涉及过错比例的情形。
      § 8. Constitutionality.
      第8条 合宪性
      If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the Act which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this Act are declared to be severable.
      如果本法的任何部分或者其对某人或者在某种情况下的适用被判定为无效,这种无效性不应影响本法其他部分的有效性或者除该无效部分或者无效适用之外的本法适用的有效性,在该意义上本法的各个部分可以被认为是可分的。
     § 9. Uniformity of Interpretation.
      第9条 解释的统一性
      This Act shall be so interpreted and construed as to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law of those states that enact it.
      本法在被说明和解释时候应该致力于实现其在生效各州统一法律的一般目的。
      § 10. Short Title.
      第10条 简称
      This Act may be cited as the Uniform Contribution Among Tortfeasors Act.
      本法被引用时应被称为《统一侵权责任分摊法案》。
      § 11. Repeal.
      第11条 废除
      All acts or parts of acts which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed.
      其他法案或者法案的任何部分因与本法各部分不一致而废止。
      § 12. Time of Taking Effect.
      第12条 生效时间
      This Act shall take effect ......................
      本法自_____起生效。
     

 
注释:
[1] 本法名称为意译,直译应为“《在(共同)侵权行为人之间进行分摊的统一法》”。
   [2] “Accrual”的原意是财产或者权利的增加,如孳息、添附等,在此应是指基于第4项的调整,但译者并不确定。
   [3] 在美国侵权法70年来责任分担理论的发展过程中,“pro rata”和“proportionate”具有“按照比例”的意思,前者以均分为原则一般不考虑数个加害人人之间的相对过错比例,后者则在受害人和各方加害人之间考虑相对过错比例因而更符合现代侵权法的按照比例分配的意思,笔者建议将“pro rata”译为“按份”,如“pro rata obligatio”便是按份之债的意思,而将“proportionate”译为“按比例”。
   [4] 根据1955年《统一侵权责任分摊法案》§ 4. [Release or Covenant Not to Sue]. COMMENT Subsection (b). Effect on Contribution.的说明,本条是《统一侵权责任分摊法案》(1939)被许多州拒绝采纳的重要原因之一,主要的问题存在于两个方面:一方面是本条不允许被免除责任的人而免受其他共同侵权人寻求分摊,另一方面是对比例范围的要求无法在判决作出之前达到,因此该条文阻碍了当事人之间的和解,遭到了来自双方律师的反对。
   [5] 本条是关于诉讼程序的规定,条文正文但不包括标题是在“[]”中,为提示读者,译者在翻译时,将本条的题目也放在“()”。
 
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